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Following the substantive harmonization in Regulation (EC) no. 1/2003, the European Commission has started more recently to focus on the harmonization of procedure and sanctions, and in January 2016, the European Parliament called for penalties against natural persons. This special issue looks at the current state of individual sanctions on the EU Member State level, examines from a comparative perspective the institutional challenges which these individual sanctions present, especially for leniency programmes, and discusses the pros and cons of introducing further individual, in particular criminal sanctions in Europe. It examines the experience with criminal sanctions in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, and presents empirical evidence on public attitudes towards competition law infringements in various Member States and the United States.

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GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 2016-2; GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-26

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